Fifteenth in a Fifteen Part Series
By Chad Greenslade
I have often been asked about my lessons learned in delivering Agile transformations. Below is the fifteenth in a fifteen part series examining my lessons learned while instituting Agile concepts & practices. I hope that these lessons help you on your journey to Agile nirvana.
Lesson 15: Execute Subsequent Sprints
With Sprint Zero (0) in your rear-view mirror, you’re now ready to execute the Sprints required to build your product.
A Sprint typically begins with a two-hour, time-boxed Product Backlog “grooming” session. Since your Product Roadmap is complete, your Product Owner should already be writing User Stories and appending them to relevant Epics. User Story “grooming” is a continuous process executed by the Product Owner throughout the product’s lifecycle. Grooming sessions are formal meetings that give the delivery team the chance to ask questions of the Product Owner about their User Story. Grooming sessions are supposed to occur during the Sprint, however, it is not uncommon for grooming sessions to be held in Sprint 0 or earlier. Grooming sessions are attended by the Product Owner, anyone else the Product Owner deems as required, and the entire delivery team. It may not be possible to discuss every User Story in the Product Backlog, therefore the team must endeavor to review this highest priority User Stories first; those the Product Owner would like to see released first. Ahead of the grooming session, the Product Owner must provide draft acceptance criteria for those stories with the highest priority. During the grooming session, the Product Owner will explain the User Story to the delivery team and participate in clarifying discussion. During the course of the grooming session, user stories may be split and / or new stories written. For each user story discussed, the acceptance criteria are agreed and the Product Owner confirms the story’s priority. If required, the Scrum Master will schedule additional grooming sessions to ensure that at the very least, the stories expected to be included within the Sprint are reviewed. Again, the goal is not to review every story in the product backlog, but rather to review just enough stories to fill the Sprint backlog.
Day 1 of your Sprint must include the Sprint Planning ceremony. I recommend a two-part Sprint Planning session with both sessions time-boxed at two (2) hours each. Sprint Planning sessions are attended by the Product Owner, anyone else the Product Owner deems as required, and the entire delivery team. The Product Owner delivers a list of “candidate” User Stories that he / she wishes to have solutioned (ideally based on the product’s roadmap and priority). The Product Owner verifies the priority of “candidate” User Stories, Acceptance Criteria is finalized and agreed, and Story Points are assigned. Lastly, with an understanding of the team’s velocity, the delivery team will “pull” the Stories from the Product Backlog into the Sprint backlog that they believe they can deliver within the sprint.
Part 2 of the Sprint Planning session should also occur on Day 1 of your Sprint. The Product Owner is not required to attend Part 2, but the entire delivery team must be in attendance. Tasks for “pulled” User Stories are reviewed, augmented, finalized, and confirmed by the delivery team. Story Points are confirmed for each Story. The Scrum Master compares total story points for “pulled” User Stories against the team's velocity. The delivery team will pull additional User Stories or push lower priority User Stories out of the Sprint. Final User Stories are committed to the Sprint by the delivery team, and the delivery team develops their “Working Agreements”.
With Sprint Planning complete, the Daily Stand-Up meetings will begin. Ideally, the Product Owner and the entire delivery team attend the Daily Standup, however, only personnel tasked with actually completing work are mandatory. The meeting is time-boxed to a maximum of fifteen (15) minutes and the standard stand-up questions are asked by the Scrum Master of all team members. A Kanban board for the Sprint is displayed showing User Story Tasks as they progress through the statuses: “To-Do”, “In-Progress”, "Blocked", "Cancelled", and “Done”.
At some point towards the end of the Sprint, the delivery team will conduct a demonstration of the user stories completed. Demonstrations are attended by the Product Owner, anyone else the Product Owner deems as required, and the entire delivery team. The Scrum Master will explain to the audience what the team committed to for this sprint and why those stories were selected. The Scrum Master will spend a few minutes going over what the sprint metrics are and what they mean (e.g. the burn down chart and the team's velocity). The Scrum Master will identify any stories that were not finished and why. The delivery team will demonstrate to the Product Owner the shippable code and functionality that has been developed during the Sprint. The Product Owner is encouraged to provide feedback, suggestions, and ask for changes to what has been done. The Scrum Master will begin drafting applicable User Stories for the Product backlog based on the Product Owner's comments. Finally, the Product Owner should give the delivery Team a view into what's coming in the next sprint, and show the updated roadmap, if available.
Not every Sprint will result in a release into a production environment for general availability, but every Sprint will result in working, shippable code. Your release plan will define when a release occurs, whereas Sprint Planning defines what work will be completed in a given Sprint. At the end of the Sprint, the delivery team must release their shippable code into appropriate repositories and / or environments. This activity may include the submission of relevant change control (a.k.a. request for change) records and obtaining management authorization to release.
The final ceremony that occurs during a sprint is the Retrospective. Ideally this is completed on the last day of the Sprint. The entire delivery team must attend. The Product Owner’s attendance is not required and may be discouraged, depending on the team dynamic. The retrospective is when the delivery team will examine themselves, their processes and tools, and make changes so they are a healthier team. It is a private opportunity for the team to celebrate their work and inspect and adapt their own processes and interactions. Some key questions to answer are:
(1) What did we do well in this sprint?
(2) What could we improve on in the future?
(3) What will we commit to improving in the next sprint?
The Scrum Master will capture discussion points from these questions and ensure they are implemented in the next Sprint.
Fourteenth in a Fifteen Part Series
By Chad Greenslade
I have often been asked about my lessons learned in delivering Agile transformations. Below is the fourteenth in a fifteen part series examining my lessons learned while instituting Agile concepts & practices. I hope that these lessons help you on your journey to Agile nirvana.
Lesson 14: Execute Sprint Zero (0)
As with any other project, you’ll want to ensure you have all materials procured, all contracts signed, environments built, tools selected, etc. While this is occurring, your Product Owner should continue writing and grooming User Stories.
Sprint Zero (0) is when all preparation work takes place to ensure your team can begin writing software free from obvious impediments such as environmental or procurement constraints. To ensure your team can begin work on schedule, ensure your Sprint Zero (0) accomplishes the following:
I do not recommend agile training be undertaken during Sprint Zero (0), but if there are members or your team that are unfamiliar with Agile, the training must be completed during Sprint Zero (0).
Thirteenth in a Fifteen Part Series
By Chad Greenslade
I have often been asked about my lessons learned in delivering Agile transformations. Below is the thirteenth in a fifteen part series examining my lessons learned while instituting Agile concepts & practices. I hope that these lessons help you on your journey to Agile nirvana.
Lesson 13: Build a Product Roadmap (containing Features, Themes, & Epics)
Immediately following the kick-off meeting, you’ll want to begin agile planning. Time spent on agile planning is intentionally limited because agilists know they will be expected to embrace change as the project unfolds. Change occurs when business priorities shift causing features (either in development or in the backlog) to have more or less value to the organization. The ability to realize value by capitalizing on expected change is one of the key benefits of agile, and the underlying reason that most organizations undertake an agile organizational transformation.
The first and most important step to building a product roadmap is to clearly define the “product”. A product is something that has business value. It may generate revenue or support a business outcome. It could be one (1) traditional stand-alone application or it could be a suite of several applications, databases, or processes. My recommendation is to define software development “products” as individual applications. I have supported “products” consisting of more than one (1) application, but doing so becomes unnecessarily complex. If your product’s applications cannot be uncoupled, then it is very important that every team member be able to develop code on all of the applications within the “product”. For example, if your product consists of three (3) applications, but only two (2) out of five (5) team members are able to develop on one (1) of the applications, the output of your team cannot be realistically calculated or planned.
Agile planning follows a logical framework with consistent vernacular. To build a Product Roadmap, you’re only interested in the top three (3) levels of planning:
The Product Roadmap is the pre-requisite for the Release Plan discussed in the following lesson. Once the Product Roadmap is defined, the Product Owner can begin writing User Stories and appending them to relevant Epics. Agilists understand that the development of User Stories will continue as the project unfolds, but the goal is to have the Product Owner begin drafting User Stories that he / she deems as having the most business value, immediately after the initial version of the Product Roadmap is released. These User Stories should naturally rise to the top of the discussion during backlog grooming and sprint planning sessions since they have the most business value and highest priority.
Twelfth in a Fifteen Part Series
By Chad Greenslade
I have often been asked about my lessons learned in delivering Agile transformations. Below is the twelfth in a fifteen part series examining my lessons learned while instituting Agile concepts & practices. I hope that these lessons help you on your journey to Agile nirvana.
Lesson 12: Hold a Kick-Off Meeting
Every project begins with a kick-off meeting. Agile projects are no different. It is a chance to pull every team member into a meeting and outline the project’s execution parameters. Do not discount the importance of having everyone present. Find a time that works for everyone and schedule enough time for attendees to ask questions. You and your sponsor will be speaking a majority of the time, but your attendees will have questions that will invariably drive questions from other attendees. One hour is typically the maximum amount of time you’ll want to use for a kick-off meeting. Thirty minutes may not be long enough. Try to get everyone in the same room if possible, and allow enough time for attendees to process the information and learn from the experience. Be positive about the outcome. State your expectation of success.
At a minimum, the kick-off meeting must address who, what, when, where, and why. All attendees must leave the meeting with a firm understanding of this information. The delivery of this information will have the most impact if it is delivered by your sponsor. His or her clout in the organization will strengthen the message and demonstrate to participants that senior management is firmly behind their effort. Whether it is at the kick-off meeting or at some other point in the project, the sponsor must demonstrate his or her commitment to the initiative and its methods to mitigate potential team member subversion later in the project.
When drafting the agenda for your kick-off meeting, be sure to include the following:
Completion of the kick-off meeting using the outline above will ensure you and your team are well positioned for success.
Eleventh in a Fifteen Part Series
By Chad Greenslade
I have often been asked about my lessons learned in delivering Agile transformations. Below is the eleventh in a fifteen part series examining my lessons learned while instituting Agile concepts & practices. I hope that these lessons help you on your journey to Agile nirvana.
Lesson 11: Select a Pilot Project
Simply put, the pilot project must be a project that is representative of, and similar to, other projects executed at your office. It cannot be a “one-off” or unique project. For example, projects related to mergers and acquisitions are typically not good candidates, whereas projects related to ongoing enhancements of technology services are good candidates.
Sponsor alignment during the selection process is required. The sponsor must be aligned on the purpose of selecting the pilot project, which is to allow the team to test the execution of agile fundamentals from beginning to end, and gauge agile’s feasibility for your environment. If the project is a success, it will give momentum to the transformation initiative. If the project is a failure, it is not the end of the world. Aspirations and expectations must be tempered while the team learns their new work patterns.
To guide the pilot project selection process, you will want to evaluate projects against six (6) key criteria:
(1) Duration: Select a project with an expected duration between four (4) and twelve (12) weeks. Shorter projects do not allow the team adequate time to execute the repeatable agile processes. The team must have enough time to fumble through things and recover while they learn, and be able to deliver meaningful feedback on agile’s effectiveness. Longer projects have an ineffective feedback loop for those learning new work patterns. Additionally, longer projects slow down the organization’s ability to effectively integrate the new work patterns across many teams.
(2) Priority: The project must be at least moderately important with an adequate level of investment and expected return. The highest and lowest priority projects in the organization are not good candidates. Look for a project somewhere in the middle of the organization’s priorities.
(3) Risk: Similar to priority, you will want to find a project with some risk, but not so much that people working on the project feel pressured to revert to old work habits. Resources working on the project must be in a relatively low-stress setting when initially executing the newly learned agile processes. Similarly, never pick a project that if it fails to deliver, the company could go out of business.
(4) Human Resources Required: Look for a project that requires several cross-functional resources to deliver. An IT software development project will typically have a business analyst, architect, one or more software developers, testers, and a project manager. Feedback from each of these roles as they execute the new work practices is critical to the success of your agile transformation initiative.
(5) Project Lifecycle: Look for a project that traverses the typical phases of an IT project. You’ll want a project that goes through the normal initiation, planning, design, development, testing, implementation, and support phases. Having a project that only produces a design or delivers business requirements is not a good choice. Your team must be able to see their product perform in operation to gain insight of the effectiveness of the new work practice.
(6) Sponsor Engagement: Your Sponsor must play the role of Product Owner during the pilot project. Ideally, your pilot project will be selected from your Sponsor’s list of projects. If your Sponsor does not have a project that matches the pilot selection criteria, your Sponsor must partner with another executive to use one of their projects as the pilot. If this occurs, your Sponsor must still play the role of the Product Owner on behalf of the partnered executive. This requires a level of trust between your Sponsor and the executive that he / she chose to partner with. This arrangement is only appropriate for the pilot project and serves to shield the team from unnecessary outside criticism while they experience the agile learning curve.
Compare the organization’s list of pending projects against the selection criteria above to yield a list of potential pilot projects. Have your Sponsor select the pilot project armed with the information above. This is not a decision to be taken lightly. Success or failure will impede or accelerate your transformation initiative.
Tenth in a Fifteen Part Series
By Chad Greenslade
I have often been asked about my lessons learned in delivering Agile transformations. Below is the tenth in a fifteen part series examining my lessons learned while instituting Agile concepts & practices. I hope that these lessons help you on your journey to Agile nirvana.
Lesson 10: Train the Team in Agile Concepts & Practices
While you may have some team members with prior agile experience, you must regard your pilot team as being unfamiliar with agile. You must increase the team’s agile knowledge as quickly as possible. There is only one (1) proven method to accomplish this; you must send the entire pilot team, along with the Sponsor, to an agile “101” class, or an agile boot camp. An introductory agile class is typically three (3) days. Five (5) day agile “boot-camps” are also available. Certified agile trainers will facilitate the course. I believe the most common and effective course is one that certifies attendees as scrum masters. The scrum master course typically provides the baseline foundational agile knowledge that your team will need to be successful.
The reason this training is so important is because attendees learn about and perform the agile processes and ceremonies during the class. Attendees learn “by-the-book” agile concepts and tenets and perform the processes and ceremonies as they were intended, and not adapted to fit any specific organization. Your pilot team should not be taught how to adapt agile to their organization at this time. Adaptation will come later as the team masters the techniques and makes informed decisions about which adaptations truly make sense. Adaptation too early typically results in a team falling back into old waterfall-style habits.
Agile training attendees will learn that they must deliver software frequently, at the end of each sprint, and the processes must be carried out to realize this objective. When training is complete, the team must assess how existing enterprise tools and processes support and / or hinder their ability to deliver software frequently. The team must understand how they will use existing tools and processes within the new agile context. Most tools and processes can be adapted to agile. You will need to engage the owners of these tools and processes to educate them on the support required for your agile project to be successful. If changes to existing tools and processes are required, be prepared to have multiple conversations with tool and process owners to get them onboard with the support required of them.
By the time your team has completed agile training and understood how existing tools and processes will support their agile project, they will need to know where they will physically sit each day. Conventional agile wisdom dictates that teams sit co-located and in the same room whenever possible. Given today’s remote work IT culture, rarely have I seen this play out exactly as specified. The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted additional pressures on agile teams by restricting their abilities to sit in an office. I have found that collaboration tools coupled with a structured and well controlled sprint execution framework can keep all team members adequately engaged, and negates the need for team members to sit next to one another.
Ninth in a Fifteen Part Series
By Chad Greenslade
I have often been asked about my lessons learned in delivering Agile transformations. Below is the ninth in a fifteen part series examining my lessons learned while instituting Agile concepts & practices. I hope that these lessons help you on your journey to Agile nirvana.
Lesson 9: Socialize Generic Agile Concepts & Practices Prior to Full Rollout
The term “socialization” refers to the process of internalizing the norms and ideologies of a social group. This internalization, or learning process, is done by every member of the group, typically over a short period of time. Socializing a concept requires memorization, practice, and discussion of the required actions that must be taken. In a business setting, it is not uncommon for a team to require two (2) or more weeks to adequately socialize and accept a new work practice. Every group and team situation will be slightly different. Therefore, the time period required for a team to socialize concepts will differ. As team size and process complexity grows, so does the time required to socialize the concepts.
There are two (2) practices that you must introduce and socialize amongst personnel involved in the organization’s agile transformation. These are daily planning and retrospectives. These practices are widely regarded to be low impact, highly effective, and the starting point of a company’s iterative transformation. At this point, you will have identified the agile sponsor or champion, executives, stakeholders, supporters, and the agile team. All of these personnel must socialize the practices. The agile team will carry out the practices, but everyone must be on-board with the concepts. After the agile team is identified but before the agile pilot project is underway, agile team members should attempt to implement these practices in their day-to-day activities. These practices immediately illustrate agile’s core tenets of transparency of work, open and honest communication, and a willingness to improve over time. By embracing these practices, the organization can gently adapt to the organizational change required. The successes and efficiencies gained by implementing these practices will build the momentum you will need for organizational commitment.
Agile’s daily planning practice is known as the “standup meeting”. The standup meeting gets its name because no one should be sitting during the meeting. A standup meeting is no longer than fifteen (15) minutes. The standup meeting should be held at the beginning of the work day, and the team should decide on the date, time, and location. Every team member must attend and every team member must speak. In a roundtable format, each team member must answer three questions: (1) what did they do yesterday, (2) what do they plan to do today, and (3) what is preventing them from making progress. The Scrum Master must ensure that everyone gets to speak and answer the three questions without interruption. If there is time left over after everyone speaks, the team is free to openly discuss any topic. The Scrum Master must schedule the meeting and publish minutes afterwards. A common anti-pattern of a standup meeting is not everyone getting to speak. If you find that this is occurring, topics raised by speakers running over their allotted time must schedule separate meetings to further discuss the topics raised. The Scrum Master can act as a facilitator to schedule meetings or activities to impediments to progress.
Agile’s retrospective practice is a thirty-to sixty minute meeting held at the end of every development cycle. A typical agile development cycle is between two (2) and four (4) weeks. The purpose of the retrospective is for the team to review the work they just completed and identify opportunities for improvement in processes, designs, or any other work practice deemed by the team to be inefficient. The meeting agenda for the retrospective is as follows:
(1) What did the team do well? It is critical to recognize and celebrate successes. It builds the team’s confidence and validates the team’s value contribution to the organization. It is important to spend an adequate amount of time celebrating successes. Sometimes the team must look hard to find them, but going through the exercise validates the team’s learning and informs their improvement decisions.
(2) What did the team do not so well? Before team members will share failures, they must be assured that they are in a safe environment. It is imperative that every team member believes that they are all in it together. Over time, the team will get better at identifying opportunities for improvement. Don’t expect miracles overnight. Iterative evolution is the goal. Any team, especially at the beginning, will go through stages of development, and it is important to consider the developmental stage when asking team members to admit possible mistakes.
(3) What does the team want to improve? The team makes a commitment to improve items in the next development cycle. The chosen improvement items must be realistically achievable. This is not the time for lofty or overly ambitious goals. Incremental improvement over time is the goal. Have the team brainstorm and create a list of potential improvements, and then have them select an item, or items, from the list that they can realistically accomplish within the time constraint of the next development cycle. Open communication and team commitment is the goal. The Scrum Master should maintain the master list and track progress made on the improvement opportunities. The list should be revisited at each retrospective meeting.
Eighth in a Fifteen Part Series
By Chad Greenslade
I have often been asked about my lessons learned in delivering Agile transformations. Below is the eighth in a fifteen part series examining my lessons learned while instituting Agile concepts & practices. I hope that these lessons help you on your journey to Agile nirvana.
Lesson 8: Logistical Ground Rules & Assembling a Diverse Team
Ideally and if possible, you'll want to find a physical meeting space where team members can be co-located all the time. The team requires a space where they can all sit in close proximity to one another, and have room for collaboration. This is typically a large conference room, capable of supporting eight to twelve people, depending on the size of the team.
In today’s ever increasing virtual workforce environment, and the IT industry’s inherent predisposition for work to be completed remotely, many IT organizations have embraced the work-from-home model. There are now many effective collaboration tools on the market that eliminate the need for team members to physically sit in the same geographic location. While it can be highly effective for an initial agile team to be physically co-located while they are executing agile fundamentals for the first time, physical co-location of team members has proven to be not a “hard and fast” requirement. Many agile teams in industry today function as virtual teams only. Agile’s inherent frequent inspect and adapt cadence coupled with the evolution of online collaboration tools ensures the proper amount of management oversight is applied.
Probably the most difficult concept for any non-agile organization to embrace is the idea that agile team members are dedicated to the agile project 100% of their work day. In non-agile organizations, internal IT employees are typically spread very thin across many projects. Additionally, team members may have both development and production support responsibilities. This can lead to a culture in which projects are completed in a resource’s “spare time”, and project delivery work can suffer seemingly endless delays as resource labor is consumed by production support activities. There are countless studies illustrating knowledge worker productivity losses due to context switching. Furthermore, the reliability and predictability of agile performance metrics is compromised if resources are not dedicated full-time. You’ll need concrete metrics if you’re going to prove the success of your upcoming pilot project and effectively navigate the cultural and political headwinds you could face in the future. The bottom line is that if you want success both in your upcoming agile pilot project and the larger agile transformation initiative, the organization must make the human resource capital investment required for success. For an agile project and transformation program, this means that resources on the team perform only the team’s work. Outside influences and external demands on team member output drastically impact your team’s ability to make and deliver on commitments.
The agile team makes the magic happen. They deliver value to the organization. Strength is found in the diversity of your team. Just as you engaged stakeholders and supporters, you must engage team members in the same way. You’ll need input from many different perspectives and you’ll need to win-over certain key influencers in the organization. It is important to realize that your selected team members may be currently delivering value using a different methodology. Inclusion of these team members, for example, will provide valuable insight into current operations and help you successfully navigate internal cultural resistance.
Your selected team members should be a representative sample of your organization. If you only select team members who are already 100% on-board with the agile transformation, you’ll deny yourself the opportunity to win-over the nay-sayers. When you win-over someone who was skeptical and / or opposed to the agile transformation, they can become powerful allies who evangelize the concepts to their colleagues.
Your selected team members should also be a representative sample of the general attitudes found in any workplace setting. Including a representative sample of these attitudes will gain you advocates and accelerate the transformation. In an agile transformation initiative, you’ll typically encounter the following attitudes, listed in order of most difficult, to least difficult, to win-over:
Last but not least, and most importantly, you must select team members who have the technical skills to deliver business value. In a typical software development delivery process, you’ll typically find the high-level disciplines of software developers, database administrators, testers, and infrastructure personnel. Within specific disciplines, you’ll find specializations. For example, software developers may be skilled in some languages, but not others. Similarly, database administrators may be familiar with some relational database management systems, but not others. At this point, you’ll need to put in some forethought on your “pilot” project, which will be further discussed in Lesson 11.
You’ll benefit by creating a matrix of the above mentioned skills, attitudes, and backgrounds needed for your team. As you select team members, ensure you’re including adequate representation from every area in the matrix. Effectively mixing these variables ensures you win the influence you’ll need to realize your transformation goal.
Seventh in a Fifteen Part Series
By Chad Greenslade
I have often been asked about my lessons learned in delivering Agile transformations. Below is the seventh in a fifteen part series examining my lessons learned while instituting Agile concepts & practices. I hope that these lessons help you on your journey to Agile nirvana.
Lesson 7: Engage Stakeholders & Supporters
Once you have executive buy-in, you’re now ready to engage your supporters. It’s imperative to get the right people on-board early on. The Agile Champion requires a group of people around them that are dissatisfied with how work is currently performed and are willing to make a change. Stakeholders and supporters fall into three (3) broad categories:
Executives: Executives will approve and / or sponsor the agile project. You'll want support from an executive that has a vested interest in the success of new projects. If possible, try to find an influential executive, one that is seen as a leader amongst their peers, someone they trust to bring great vision and planning to the organization, and try to get him or her to sponsor your agile project.
Individual Contributors: Your Individual Contributors are the folks that will actually be carrying out the agile project. These are the guys who will need the agile training to execute the agile work processes. You’ll want good representation with this group of people. If your organization has certain disciplines (application development, database, project management, etc.) or product lines, you’ll want though leaders representing these groups.
Middle Management: Every Individual Contributor on your team reports to someone. You’ll want to figure out who those people are and talk to them. After all, these people write the performance reviews of your Individual Contributors. Even the strongest Individual Contributor still must do what their manager asks; that's how they retain their position. It’s extremely important to gain middle management buy-in because very often, middle management is directly responsible for executing the operation of the IT department and are unlikely to pose future, unforeseen process barriers if they are engaged early.
Once you’ve identified your stakeholders and supporters, schedule meetings to discuss the agile transformation initiative. Educate them on what you’ve learned about agile and how it can meet their objectives. Discuss your plan and key milestones in the agile transformation initiative. These meetings are not the “one-and-done” type. Expect to have multiple conversations as people learn more. You must give people time to learn, to think through agile concepts and how they will impact their day-to-day. Everyone learns at different speeds, so be prepared to be patient. You will be doing ongoing research in order to answer everyone’s questions. If you’re able to answer everyone’s questions and sell them on the benefits, they will follow your lead during the changes ahead.
Sixth in a Fifteen Part Series
By Chad Greenslade
I have often been asked about my lessons learned in delivering Agile transformations. Below is the sixth in a fifteen part series examining my lessons learned while instituting Agile concepts & practices. I hope that these lessons help you on your journey to Agile nirvana.
Lesson 6: Gain Executive Buy-In
Executives have motivations and you must work to understand their nuanced agendas and how they are measured while getting them to agree on a specific course of action. You’re going to need a coalition of aligned executives if you wish to get your agile transformation effort off the ground. Discuss the problems that you are attempting to solve, help them understand why a change is required, and educate them on how you came to explore agile as a solution.
The first step of executive alignment is gaining consensus on the problem statement. If executives have differing opinions on what the problem is, they will naturally have differing opinions on the solution. Conversely, executive consensus on a problem statement makes it much easier to gain concurrence on the problem’s solution. You should be able to articulate the problem using actual results from previously completed projects. Empirical evidence such as budget, schedule, and quality data can be examined and used to justify the problem statement. If existing project intake and / or request management processes cannot keep up with demand, this can be further used as justification for change. Many of today’s software products are subscription based with regular updates included as part of the service. A traditional waterfall approach may not support the quick release cadence demanded by your customers. Whatever your justification may be, it’s important to not only cite the problem statement, but to also provide concrete, salient examples of the problem; incidents that everyone can point to and agree that they are actual examples of the problem statement.
Once you have executive alignment on the problem statement, next you must help executives understand how agile solves the problem. Reiterate the benefits of agile from lesson #3 as you map them to the problem statement. Solving the problem statement also involves addressing the, “what’s in it for me?” question. When having this discussion with executives, frame it in terms of cost, risk, and rewards.
The agile transformation can expect hard costs for training of the pilot team, and an agile coach, if you choose to use one. You can expect to encounter soft costs for staff transitioning to a new methodology and tools as their productivity temporarily slows until the new processes are institutionalized. You must do your homework to ensure these costs are accurate, complete, understood, and accepted.
In my opinion, there is more perceived risk than actual risk in an agile transformation. Fundamentally, we’re not changing the way software is written, we’re simply changing the way we organize the work of software development. Sure, if you don’t have a plan for how to get from point A to point B, you’re going to get lost, but if a plan (like the one outlined in these lessons) is followed, risks only materialize in a few areas. Risks should be logged and managed with a mitigation plan for each that is regularly reviewed with the executive team. Doing this builds trust that risks are being managed and confidence that the effort will succeed. The most common risk is insufficient buy-in from executives or team members. This can clearly be managed before an agile transformation initiative is undertaken by additional training and education. Healthy skepticism of a new process is welcome, but active sabotage will be detrimental to the effort so it’s important that the right people are on-board and all pulling in the same direction. Risk of business impact can be mitigated by executing a pilot agile project first, and then using the results of the pilot to further refine the rollout.
Everyone likes to look good to their boss and executives are no different. You’ll want to figure out each executive’s performance drivers, but like everyone else, executives want to be valuable and promotable. Like all leaders, they want to demonstrate their leadership skills, achieve faster product delivery, lower operating costs, and in increase profits. You’ll want to again re-emphasize the speed of product delivery reward expected from an agile transformation and highlight how their sponsorship and / or support of a major organizational shift, such as this one, will demonstrate their leadership abilities and increase the bottom line.
Chad Greenslade studied Information Systems at the University of Texas at Arlington and graduated Magna Cum Laude.